Internet of Things: Everything You Must Know About IoT

Positive Stud
7 min readSep 5, 2022

What is IoT? Here are several basic things you must know about the Internet of things!

What does IoT stand for? — IoT stands for the Internet of Things.

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

To put it simply, the Internet of Things is a network of linked physical objects that communicate online (With the Internet). In many ways, the data these Internet of Things devices collect and share with other devices, systems, and applications “talks” to us and the other things it is connected to.

IoT devices produce sensory, biotelemetry, and a wide variety of other data types, from wearables to industrial sensors.


How does IoT work?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of Internet-connected devices. These devices are essentially minicomputer processors that use machine learning to act on sensor data. Smart warehouse vehicles, fitness trackers, and cold storage temperature monitors are all examples of IoT devices.

A complete IoT system consists of four components:

1. Sensors and devices

Data is sent to the cloud by smart devices or sensors.

2. Data Gathering and Connectivity

Data is transferred from a device or sensor to the cloud via a connection. The way these devices connect varies depending on their purpose.

Today’s popular methods include:

  • HTTP/S
  • Bluetooth
  • RFID readers
  • FTP

And a group of new IoT-specific communication protocols.

Data is sent to a gathering point at a data center or in the cloud using one of the methods listed above.

3. Machine Learning and/or Data Processing

After the IoT device collects data from its surroundings and aggregates it in a data center or cloud, the information is processed by software. Without user intervention, the device can decide to perform an action, such as sending an alert to a user or automatically adjusting a sensor.

Many IoT devices can learn about user preferences and automatically adjust to match those preferences as data is collected. Some IoT products are smart because of the combination of data processing and machine learning.

The ability of IoT devices to learn without programming is extremely valuable.

Consider the smart thermostat, which automatically adjusts to the ideal indoor temperature, or the smart refrigerator, which not only notifies you when you are running low on a specific grocery item but also orders a replacement.

4. The User Interface

While automation continues to transform how we interact with IoT devices, some decisions or actions require the use of a traditional user interface. A user may want to use their smartphone to adjust the temperature of a thermostat or check the IoT security camera installed in their home. An IoT user interface allows the user to respond appropriately if user input or intervention is required.


A Brief History Of Things

People have long placed devices (things), gathered information, and sent signals from one location to another. When enemies approached a kingdom in previous wars, people on watch would set off a series of signals, such as flames or sounds, to alert decision-makers that a threat was on the horizon.

Sensors, or small devices, have been used by institutions for a long time. Still, the technology that allowed the sensors to report back to a central service was something like walking, fires, radio signals, cables, or, possibly, satellite. The internet is now the primary service through which all of these sensors can communicate information back to their hosts.

The internet is plentiful and simple to use. It takes fewer resources with this framework to place a data-collection device somewhere in the world and retrieve information from it. Signaling devices can evolve beyond their primarily utilitarian functions to provide signals for a wide range of applications.

Weather alert systems, for example, have advanced significantly. They monitor natural disasters in a region, warning of impending earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods. Following Colorado’s Big Thompson Flood in 1976, a series of signals were installed to monitor river elevations and alert residents when the river was dangerous. Similarly, most major cities in the United States now have sensors that alert authorities when and where a gun is present.

Today, we are entering an era of small devices linked to the internet. The Internet of Things society has the potential to become wealthy as it enters a period of pleasure and delight. Instead of walking to the rain gauge or answering the door in person or over an intercom, the rain gauge and doorbell can now be connected to the internet and send signals to a person’s phone.


The Significance Of The IoT

While there are some amusing applications for capturing signals via IoT, there are also many beneficial applications. Every industry works the same way: it receives a signal and makes a decision. Every industry will benefit from connecting its custom devices to the Internet of Things in order to collect the data needed to make more informed decisions about what to do and, more importantly, when to act.

In the early 2010s, there was talk of IoT; all of the pieces were in place. People experimented with connecting major home appliances to the internet of things, such as refrigerators and dryers. Most of these connected devices were simply fancy add-ons or novelties to differentiate a product from its competitors at the time.

The Internet of Things will be better prepared to thrive in 2020. IoT has a significant impact on the 2020 technological ecosystem:

  • Storage is inexpensive.
  • The Kubernetes architecture, released in 2017, can manage both small and large computer tasks, relieving server engineers of the burden (the focus shifts to cybersecurity).
  • Large amounts of data are processed and used by machine learning techniques.
  • Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services, and Microsoft Azure all have teams of people to manage these resources for a low cost.

In the 2020s, technology companies will be able to use IoT and connect devices to provide a service rather than just a novelty.


What are the two most serious concerns about IoT devices?

As much as we’ve discussed how useful the Internet of Things can be, there is a downside that businesses must be aware of.

1. IoT Security

IoT, like any other emerging technology, presents an entirely new set of challenges to an organization. For businesses that are ready to integrate some form of IoT into their operations, there is still some uncertainty about IoT standards, policy, and governance. While the number of connected devices shows promise for IoT, it is also a potential detriment to the viability of its security. The more devices there are, the more likely a security breach will occur. The sheer number of devices is concerning.

What is secure today is not always secure tomorrow. And this is a major concern with IoT devices. As terrifying as it sounds, imagine hackers being able to access (or even control) a smart car, and your wireless router, potentially turn off a heart monitor, or change the rhythm of a pacemaker. In a more connected world, it only takes one security flaw to compromise personal data privacy or bring down an enterprise’s security and hold the business hostage.

2. Standards (or lack thereof)

As the number of IoT devices has grown, many people have called for uniform standards to hold companies accountable and eliminate unsecured devices and their security risks. To fully secure IoT, manufacturers, and providers will need to increase their liability. Companies must coordinate their efforts around policies such as information sharing.

The Future of IoT

To say the least, the future of this cutting-edge technology within the enterprise will be very interesting. Intelligent businesses that investigate IoT may gain a significant competitive advantage. For example, a third-party logistics company can use IoT and new streams of data and analytics to optimize routes, lowering costs and increasing operating margins.

However, as with any new technology, there are risks. The issue will evolve from the need to address the challenges outlined above, from what these things look like and where they are located to how the individual or organization can get the information to a meaningful application or system.

How businesses choose to create worthwhile interactions with their data through connection, integration, and maintenance will determine whether the Internet of Things is successful or not.

IoT is still uncharted territory for the vast majority of businesses. In order to minimize risk and fully capitalize on the true potential, businesses must be able to manage these devices and all data in a responsible, well-governed manner in the future.




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